The Otium Post

The Otium Post


How a secretive elite created the EU to build a world government - Telegraph

How a secretive elite created the EU to build a world government

Voters in Britain's referendum need to understand that the European Union was about building a federal superstate from day one.

Harold Macmillan with Edward Heath (right) in 1963 Photo: PA

Telegraph - By Prof Alan Sked
8:30AM GMT 27 Nov 2015

As the debate over the forthcoming EU referendum gears up, it would be wise perhaps to remember how Britain was led into membership in the first place. It seems to me that most people have little idea why one of the victors of the Second World War should have become almost desperate to join this "club". That's a shame, because answering that question is key to understanding why the EU has gone so wrong.

Most students seem to think that Britain was in dire economic straits, and that the European Economic Community – as it was then called – provided an economic engine which could revitalise our economy. Others seem to believe that after the Second World War Britain needed to recast her geopolitical position away from empire, and towards a more realistic one at the heart of Europe. Neither of these arguments, however, makes any sense at all.

The EEC in the 1960s and 1970s was in no position to regenerate anyone’s economy. It spent most of its meagre resources on agriculture and fisheries and had no means or policies to generate economic growth.

"When we entered the EEC our annual growth rate was a record 7.4 per cent. The present Chancellor would die for such figures"

When growth did happen, it did not come from the EU. From Ludwig Erhard's supply-side reforms in West Germany in 1948 toThatcher's privatisation of nationalised industry in the Eighties, European growth came from reforms introduced by individual countries which were were copied elsewhere. EU policy has always been either irrelevant or positively detrimental (as was the case with the euro).

Nor did British growth ever really lag behind Europe's. Sometimes it surged ahead. In the 1950s Western Europe had a growth rate of 3.5 per cent; in the 1960s, it was 4.5 per cent. But in 1959, when Harold Macmillan took office, the real annual growth rate of British GDP, according to the Office of National Statistics, was almost 6 per cent. It was again almost 6 per cent when de Gaulle vetoed our first application to join the EEC in 1963.

In 1973, when we entered the EEC, our annual national growth rate in real terms was a record 7.4 per cent. The present Chancellor would die for such figures. So the economic basket-case argument doesn’t work.

What about geopolitics? What argument in the cold light of hindsight could have been so compelling as to make us kick our Second-World-War Commonwealth allies in the teeth to join a combination of Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Germany and Italy?

Four of these countries held no international weight whatsoever. Germany was occupied and divided. France, meanwhile, had lost one colonial war in Vietnam and another in Algeria. De Gaulle had come to power to save the country from civil war. Most realists must surely have regarded these states as a bunch of losers. De Gaulle, himself a supreme realist, pointed out that Britain had democratic political institutions, world trade links, cheap food from the Commonwealth, and was a global power. Why would it want to enter the EEC?

"Harold Macmillan and his closest advisers were part of an intellectual tradition that saw the salvation of the world in some form of world government"

The answer is that Harold Macmillan and his closest advisers were part of an intellectual tradition that saw the salvation of the world in some form of world government based on regional federations. He was also a close acquaintance of Jean Monnet, who believed the same. It was therefore Macmillan who became the representative of the European federalist movement in the British cabinet.

In a speech in the House of Commons he even advocated a European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) before the real thing had been announced. He later arranged for a Treaty of Association to be signed between the UK and the ECSC, and it was he who ensured that a British representative was sent to the Brussels negotiations following the Messina Conference, which gave birth to the EEC.

In the late 1950s he pushed negotiations concerning a European Free Trade Association towards membership of the EEC. Then, when General de Gaulle began to turn the EEC into a less federalist body, he took the risk of submitting a full British membership application in the hope of frustrating Gaullist ambitions.

His aim, in alliance with US and European proponents of a federalist world order, was to frustrate the emerging Franco-German alliance which was seen as one of French and German nationalism. 

Monnet met secretly with heath and macmillan on innumerable occasions to facilitate british entry. Indeed, he was informed before the british parliament of the terms in which the british approach to europe would be framed.Despite advice from the lord chancellor, lord kilmuir, that membership would mean the end of british parliamentary sovereignty, macmillan deliberately misled the house of commons — and practically everyone else, from commonwealth statesmen to cabinet colleagues and the public — that merely minor commercial negotiations were involved.

He even tried to deceive de gaulle that he was an anti-federalist and a close friend who would arrange for france, like britain, to receive polaris missiles from the americans. De gaulle saw completely through him and vetoed the british bid to enter.

Macmillan left edward heath to take matters forward, and heath, along with douglas hurd, arranged — according to the monnet papers — for the tory party to become a (secret) corporate member of monnet’s action committee for a united states of europe.
According to monnet’s chief aide and biographer, francois duchene, both the labour and liberal parties later did the same. Meanwhile the earl of gosford, one of macmillan’s foreign policy ministers in the house of lords, actually informed the house that the aim of the government’s foreign policy was world government.

"the anglo-american establishment was now committed to the creation of a federal united states of europe"

Monnet’s action committee was also given financial backing by thecia and the us state department. The anglo-american establishment was now committed to the creation of a federal united states of europe.

Today, this is still the case. Powerful international lobbies are already at work attempting to prove that any return to democratic self-government on the part of britain will spell doom. American officials have already been primed to state that such a britain would be excluded from any free trade deal with the usa and that the world needs the ttip trade treaty which is predicated on the survival of the eu.

Fortunately, republican candidates in the usa are becoming eurosceptics and magazines there like the national interest are publishing the case for brexit. The international coalition behind macmillan and heath will find things a lot more difficult this time round — especially given the obvious difficulties of the eurozone, the failure of eu migration policy and the lack of any coherent eu security policy.

Most importantly, having been fooled once, the british public will be much more difficult to fool again.

Alan sked is the original founder of ukip and professor of international history at the london school of economics. He is presently collecting material for a book he hopes to publish on britain's experience of the EU.




Now that even the honorable Daily Telegraph has seen the light,is it not about time the rest of our people understand who and what is behind all the terror and grief caused by scaring millions of people from the Middle East and Africa into Europe using hired assassin groups hoping for a new Arab spring,which will never come.  Illuminati and the Bilderberg Group oligarchs have agendas like the devil who pays willing hands but destroys them when their usefulness is over.  ISIL have done their job,Europe is now full of immigrants with nowhere to stay,at the onset of a long,cold winter.  This will cause another planned catastrophe and will also split the cohesion of Europe.

It is about time the people of Europe bring these faceless demons out in the daylight and make them pay for their horrendous deeds and the thousands of innocent lives lost escaping from fear of their lives.

From the devil´s advocate Peter Sutherland to the British Chancellor of the Exchequer,and the German Minister of Finance to Rockefeller and his fellow fat cats, as well as a long list of participants in the last Bilderberg meeting in Tyrol this year,they should not be hard to find.



Final list of Participants
Castries, Henri deChairman and CEO, AXA GroupFRA
Achleitner, Paul M.Chairman of the Supervisory Board, Deutsche Bank AGDEU
Agius, MarcusNon-Executive Chairman, PA Consulting GroupGBR
Ahrenkiel, ThomasDirector, Danish Intelligence Service (DDIS)DNK
Allen, John R.Special Presidential Envoy for the Global Coalition to Counter ISIL, US Department of StateUSA
Altman, Roger C.Executive Chairman, EvercoreUSA
Applebaum, AnneDirector of Transitions Forum, Legatum InstitutePOL
Apunen, MattiDirector, Finnish Business and Policy Forum EVAFIN
Baird, ZoëCEO and President, Markle FoundationUSA
Balls, Edward M.Former Shadow Chancellor of the ExchequerGBR
Balsemão, Francisco PintoChairman, Impresa SGPSPRT
Barroso, José M. DurãoFormer President of the European CommissionPRT
Baverez, NicolasPartner, Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLPFRA
Benko, RenéFounder, SIGNA Holding GmbHAUT
Bernabè, FrancoChairman, FB Group SRLITA
Beurden, Ben vanCEO, Royal Dutch Shell plcNLD
Bigorgne, LaurentDirector, Institut MontaigneFRA
Boone, LaurenceSpecial Adviser on Financial and Economic Affairs to the PresidentFRA
Botín, Ana P.Chairman, Banco SantanderESP
Brandtzæg, Svein RichardPresident and CEO, Norsk Hydro ASANOR
Bronner, OscarPublisher, Standard VerlagsgesellschaftAUT
Burns, WilliamPresident, Carnegie Endowment for International PeaceUSA
Calvar, PatrickDirector General, DGSIFRA
Castries, Henri deChairman, Bilderberg Meetings; Chairman and CEO, AXA GroupFRA
Cebrián, Juan LuisExecutive Chairman, Grupo PRISAESP
Clark, W. EdmundRetired Executive, TD Bank GroupCAN
Coeuré, BenoîtMember of the Executive Board, European Central BankINT
Coyne, AndrewEditor, Editorials and Comment, National PostCAN
Damberg, Mikael L.Minister for Enterprise and InnovationSWE
De Gucht, KarelFormer EU Trade Commissioner, State MinisterBEL
Dijsselbloem, JeroenMinister of FinanceNLD
Donilon, Thomas E.Former U.S. National Security Advisor; Partner and Vice Chair, O’Melveny & Myers LLPUSA
Döpfner, MathiasCEO, Axel Springer SEDEU
Dowling, AnnPresident, Royal Academy of EngineeringGBR
Dugan, ReginaVice President for Engineering, Advanced Technology and Projects, GoogleUSA
Eilertsen, TrinePolitical Editor, AftenpostenNOR
Eldrup, MereteCEO, TV 2 Danmark A/SDNK
Elkann, JohnChairman and CEO, EXOR; Chairman, Fiat Chrysler AutomobilesITA
Enders, ThomasCEO, Airbus GroupDEU
Erdoes, MaryCEO, JP Morgan Asset ManagementUSA
Fairhead, RonaChairman, BBC TrustGBR
Federspiel, UlrikExecutive Vice President, Haldor Topsøe A/SDNK
Feldstein, Martin S.President Emeritus, NBER;  Professor of Economics, Harvard UniversityUSA
Ferguson, NiallProfessor of History, Harvard University, Gunzberg Center for European StudiesUSA
Fischer, HeinzFederal PresidentAUT
Flint, Douglas J.Group Chairman, HSBC Holdings plcGBR
Franz, ChristophChairman of the Board, F. Hoffmann-La Roche LtdCHE
Fresco, Louise O.President and Chairman Executive Board, Wageningen University and Research CentreNLD
Griffin, KennethFounder and CEO, Citadel Investment Group, LLCUSA
Gruber, LilliExecutive Editor and Anchor “Otto e mezzo”, La7 TVITA
Guriev, SergeiProfessor of Economics, Sciences PoRUS
Gürkaynak, GönençManaging Partner, ELIG Law FirmTUR
Gusenbauer, AlfredFormer Chancellor of the Republic of AustriaAUT
Halberstadt, VictorProfessor of Economics, Leiden UniversityNLD
Hampel, ErichChairman, UniCredit Bank Austria AGAUT
Hassabis, DemisVice President of Engineering, Google DeepMindGBR
Hesoun, WolfgangCEO, Siemens AustriaAUT
Hildebrand, PhilippVice Chairman, BlackRock Inc.CHE
Hoffman, ReidCo-Founder and Executive Chairman, LinkedInUSA
Ischinger, WolfgangChairman, Munich Security ConferenceINT
Jacobs, Kenneth M.Chairman and CEO, LazardUSA
Jäkel, JuliaCEO, Gruner + JahrDEU
Johnson, James A.Chairman, Johnson Capital PartnersUSA
Juppé, AlainMayor of Bordeaux, Former Prime MinisterFRA
Kaeser, JoePresident and CEO, Siemens AGDEU
Karp, AlexCEO, Palantir TechnologiesUSA
Kepel, GillesUniversity Professor, Sciences PoFRA
Kerr, JohnDeputy Chairman, Scottish PowerGBR
Kesici, IlhanMP, Turkish ParliamentTUR
Kissinger, Henry A.Chairman, Kissinger Associates, Inc.USA
Kleinfeld, KlausChairman and CEO, AlcoaUSA
Knot, Klaas H.W.President, De Nederlandsche BankNLD
Koç, Mustafa V.Chairman, Koç Holding A.S.TUR
Kogler, KonradDirector General, Directorate General for Public SecurityAUT
Kravis, Henry R.Co-Chairman and Co-CEO, Kohlberg Kravis Roberts & Co.USA
Kravis, Marie-JoséeSenior Fellow and Vice Chair, Hudson InstituteUSA
Kudelski, AndréChairman and CEO, Kudelski GroupCHE
Lauk, KurtPresident, Globe Capital PartnersDEU
Lemne, CarolaCEO, The Confederation of Swedish EnterpriseSWE
Levey, StuartChief Legal Officer, HSBC Holdings plcUSA
Leyen, Ursula von derMinister of DefenceDEU
Leysen, ThomasChairman of the Board of Directors, KBC GroupBEL
Maher, ShirazSenior Research Fellow, ICSR, King’s College LondonGBR
Markus Lassen, ChristinaHead of Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Security Policy and StabilisationDNK
Mathews, Jessica T.Distinguished Fellow, Carnegie Endowment for International PeaceUSA
Mattis, JamesDistinguished Visiting Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford UniversityUSA
Maudet, PierreVice-President of the State Council, Department of Security, Police and the Economy of GenevaCHE
McKay, David I.President and CEO, Royal Bank of CanadaCAN
Mert, NurayColumnist, Professor of Political Science, Istanbul UniversityTUR
Messina, JimCEO, The Messina GroupUSA
Michel, CharlesPrime MinisterBEL
Micklethwait, JohnEditor-in-Chief, Bloomberg LPUSA
Minton Beddoes, ZannyEditor-in-Chief, The EconomistGBR
Monti, MarioSenator-for-life; President, Bocconi UniversityITA
Mörttinen, LeenaExecutive Director, The Finnish Family Firms AssociationFIN
Mundie, Craig J.Principal, Mundie & AssociatesUSA
Munroe-Blum, HeatherChairperson, Canada Pension Plan Investment BoardCAN
Netherlands, H.R.H. Princess Beatrix of theNLD
O’Leary, MichaelCEO, Ryanair PlcIRL
Osborne, GeorgeFirst Secretary of State and Chancellor of the ExchequerGBR
Özel, SoliColumnist, Haberturk Newspaper; Senior Lecturer, Kadir Has UniversityTUR
Papalexopoulos, DimitriGroup CEO, Titan Cement Co.GRC
Pégard, CatherinePresident, Public Establishment of the Palace, Museum and National Estate of VersaillesFRA
Perle, Richard N.Resident Fellow, American Enterprise InstituteUSA
Petraeus, David H.Chairman, KKR Global InstituteUSA
Pikrammenos, PanagiotisHonorary President of The Hellenic Council of StateGRC
Reisman, Heather M.Chair and CEO, Indigo Books & Music Inc.CAN
Rocca, GianfeliceChairman, Techint GroupITA
Roiss, GerhardCEO, OMV AustriaAUT
Rubin, Robert E.Co Chair, Council on Foreign Relations; Former Secretary of the TreasuryUSA
Rutte, MarkPrime MinisterNLD
Sadjadpour, KarimSenior Associate, Carnegie Endowment for International PeaceUSA
Sánchez Pérez-Castejón, PedroLeader, Partido Socialista Obrero Español PSOEESP
Sawers, JohnChairman and Partner, Macro Advisory PartnersGBR
Sayek Böke, SelinVice President, Republican People’s PartyTUR
Schmidt, Eric E.Executive Chairman, Google Inc.USA
Scholten, RudolfCEO, Oesterreichische Kontrollbank AGAUT
Senard, Jean-DominiqueCEO, Michelin GroupFRA
Sevelda, KarlCEO, Raiffeisen Bank International AGAUT
Stoltenberg, JensSecretary General, NATOINT
Stubb, AlexanderPrime MinisterFIN
Suder, KatrinDeputy Minister of DefenseDEU
Sutherland, Peter D.UN Special Representative; Chairman, Goldman Sachs InternationalIRL
Svanberg, Carl-HenricChairman, BP plc; Chairman, AB VolvoSWE
Svarva, OlaugCEO, The Government Pension Fund NorwayNOR
Thiel, Peter A.President, Thiel CapitalUSA
Tsoukalis, LoukasPresident, Hellenic Foundation for European and Foreign PolicyGRC
Üzümcü, AhmetDirector-General, Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical WeaponsINT
Vitorino, António M.Partner, Cuetrecasas, Concalves Pereira, RLPRT
Wallenberg, JacobChairman, Investor ABSWE
Weber, VinPartner, Mercury LLCUSA
Wolf, Martin H.Chief Economics Commentator, The Financial TimesGBR
Wolfensohn, James D.Chairman and CEO, Wolfensohn and CompanyUSA
Zoellick, Robert B.Chairman, Board of International Advisors, The Goldman Sachs Group

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